Are You Getting Your Share of Mailbox Money?

Does your business allow for "mailbox money" and a lifestyle you love? If not, what would it take for you to create this?

Let's start with the definition of mailbox money. This is money you receive in both your inbox and your physical mailbox.

I first heard the term from Mary Morrissey . When I heard her definition I realized I have had mailbox money for years.

Based on how you have your business set up you likely have a general idea of ​​a minimum amount of money that will arrive daily whether it is a few hundred or a few thousand. Beyond the baseline, you likely won't know from day to day how much cash will arrive. The reason? Multiple streams of revenue that fluctuates from day to day.

Multiple streams of revenue is exactly what it sounds like; money that comes from various sources. One way to create multiple streams of mailbox money is with information products; yours and those you sell for others.

The more information you have to offer that your market has an interest in the more revenue you can generate.

If you have no products of your own you can start by becoming an affiliate seller. Make sure whomever you sell for and whatever you make available you are selling an outstanding product or service you are proud to make available to your market. Never, ever, ever sell anything you can't put your personal stamp of approval on.

Keep this in mind.

Don't sell simply to make money. Making money simply for the sake of making money may be short lived. Start from the point of, "What would create the greatest value and truly serve my market?" When you think in terms of being of service, the money will follow for a long time to come.

You may have to test a few products to identify your markets' sweet spot both with the type of information you are introducing and the price point.

Some online entrepreneurs are very successful by selling other experts' products. Others prefer to create their own. Still others like a combination of the two.

I lean towards the latter.

If you're planning on developing your own products now is the perfect time to begin. However, you will be well served to plan out what you introduce.

Follow these simple steps to move you in the right direction.

• Identify what your potential customers are interested in. A survey can help considerably in this area.
• Determine what knowledge you have that people would be willing to pay for.
• Decide the format for the information product; video, audio, MP3.
• Determine method of delivery; ClickBank, autoresponder, other.
• Determine method of payment; PayPal, credit card.
• Develop the product.
• Develop a landing page. If you're not qualified you can find plenty of eager designers on elance.com or get a free or low cost template program.
• Market.

Obviously, there's more detail I could cover, but this will be a great place to start. I can assure you that when you have several things to offer your market, both yours and those of other experts, you'll get very used to watching your "mailbox money" arrive on a daily basis.

So much in fact, you will know what it means to have a lifestyle business.

What's your experience with mailbox money? Are you getting your share?

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Python Language: Why One Should Learn It and How It Can Help

Many programming languages ​​are used today, some are used, and some have gone obsolete. In the last few years, the programming scenario has changed drastically as developers and programmers are searching for more universal and approachable languages. This is the reason why Python language has become so famous recently. The Python community is growing bigger day by day as many programs are now finding it to be one of the most user-friendly programming languages.

Python language has become so famous that every field and sector is now a user of it. Even though the other programming languages ​​are not losing their fans, Python is increasing its fan base. Therefore, more and more people are now aspiring to learn Python. Some of the reasons why having a certification in Python can be helpful are discussed below:

Machine learning

Today, almost everything runs through algorithms, whether it is a search engine, social media, chat bots, virtual personal assistants, etc. These sophisticated algorithms are the result of machine learning and it has changed the entire technological scenario. With machine learning, the major programming language that is been used is Python, and one can find many libraries dedicated to machine learning only.

Big data

Python is used in data science the most and the professionals in this field are required to have expertise in this programming language. Though there are many other languages ​​like Java, R, etc. which is used for data science, Python remains the favorite. This is because of the diversity it allows in automation technology, along with with the various framework and library available like NumPy, PyBrain, etc.

Web development

There are many websites these days like Reddit which are developed using Python language. The main reason why the Python programming language is used in web development is its speed and effectiveness. Using PHP developing a website can take hours, while using Python will take only a few minutes. Also, there are frameworks and libraries like Django and Flask which make the work much easier.

Community

One of the areas that programmers search for these days is the communities. In these communities, the developers and programmers can connect with others from any part of the world and can share their experiences and technologies. This helps them in learning new things about Python and how to solve various issues that may arise while coding.

Libraries

Libraries are really helpful when it comes to application and website development. One can find any kind of code. Python has a huge number of frameworks and libraries like Flask, Django, NumPy, Scipy, Pandas, Tensorflow, Keras, etc. One needs to concentrate on the logic and objective and the codes are easily available in the libraries.

Simple

Lastly, the biggest reason why programmers use Python is the fact that it is a simple programming language. It is a beginner user-friendly language as it does not require a lot of complex codes and syntaxes which are not understandable. Python has an easy and readable syntax and coding which makes its set-up and usage much easier.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

SEO Vs Google AdWords – Online Marketing

So you've just got your amazing new website designed. What now? How do you get your target market / audience to explore your new online business home? The answer? Online Marketing.

Online Marketing, also known as internet marketing, is the art of using various techniques and methods to advertise and sell products or services via the internet. These techniques and methods can be categorized into the follow: E-mail marketing, YouTube Marketing, Blogging, Social Media Marketing, Affiliate Marketing and more.

However, today I would like to focus on one main category of online marketing, Search Engine Results. Search Engine Results is divided into two sub groups – SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and Pay Per Click (paid advertising). More specifically, I would like to focus on Google AdWords.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

SEO is a natural / organic way of getting your website to display within the top results on search engines such as Google, Bing and Yahoo. This type of online marketing needs upkeep and will need to be maintained over time to ensure that the results are consistent. SEO provides organic search results.

SEO is a great way to build brand awareness and a lasting company image on the internet.

The concept of SEO is simple – optimize your website to be "search-engine-friendly", however executing this is a difficult and time consuming task. SEO is not a once-off online marketing tool that you can use to promote your business, it is a long-term investment. The ROI of SEO is great and cannot be compared to any other marketing as it all depends on how competitive your niche market is regarding SEO and of course how good your team of SEO experts are.

Hiring the right SEO company is essential. Do not rush this step, if you do, you can either get your website banned and blacklisted on search engines or you could get the best online marketing out there. As mentioned above, SEO is a long-term investment, this means that every SEO / Website Design company out there that promise 1st Page Google results for X amount of money is wasting your money on cheap / illegal tricks. These tricks usually work for about a week or two, but once Google, Bing or Yahoo notices these tricks (and they will), your website and domain name will be blacklisted and removed from their search results. SEO isn't a cheap service, it takes hours of tricky work. Quality online marketing companies know what their SEO is worth.

Google AdWords (Pay Per Click advertising)

Pay Per Click advertising, also known as PPC, is a method of getting 1st Page / Top search engine results by paying X amount of money for that 1st Page / Top position. Google AdWords has a system that allows users to bid on a certain keyword to rank within the top results. For example if your business sells used cars, you would bid on keywords like "used cars", "second-hand cars" etc, and when someone types in "used cars" in Google, your website will appear all the way at the top of the search results. This form of online marketing can be very effective if used right and the ROI can be measured very accurate.

Even though Google AdWords sounds like a simple and easy to use online marketing tool, it has to be done by an expert. Countless people have blown thousands of Rands by adding an extra 0 to a few keywords or wasted their money by targeting the wrong search groups. Running a successful Google AdWords campaign is also a very tricky and time consuming process, however unlike SEO, Google AdWords will give you an immediate result. Getting a professional online marketing company to run your Google AdWords campaign will optimize your ROI and ensure that your search engine ads are correct and professional.

Online Marketing Conclusion

Both SEO and Google AdWords have their advantages and disadvantages. Choosing one over the other is completely up to the circumstances of the business. However, choosing both will always be a good decision. Running an Google AdWords campaign while doing SEO on your website is the ultimate online marketing solution. This will ensure that you are getting real-time results and traffic to your website from Google AdWords but you will also increase your SEO quality as search engines want to feature websites that are getting a lot of traffic.

Keen to launch your online marketing campaign? Contact Oneclickhere for a non obligation consultation.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Zero Zero Financing on Automobiles in Retrospect

Some say that the automobile industry saved the economy during the last recession. This is because auto sales are bundled into retail sales, which allowed higher numbers than actual to be reported. Many will say that what is good for General Motors is good for America, they might even cite the fact that the automobile industry saved the economy at the bottom of the last recession.

Remember when Mitsubishi did the Zero-Zero-Zero plan. This was a calculated risk and were betting on the election year gold rush to help pay for any of the fall-out in loans? Well that never came because the US interest rates stayed down, job recovery came late and Domestics along with those other foreign automobile companies did quite well. So what is happening now due to this decision to go 0-0-0, well many of those loans have gone South, and the Yen is high against the dollar and now Mitsubishi is about 2 billion in the hole at last count. The Mitsubishi bail-out cost at least $ 1.9 billion US Dollars. Many auto industry economic advisors had mixed opinions on this, but for the most part thought the plan for zero-zero-zero was foolish. Zero money down, Zero interest rates and zero payments until next year. This was in 2002 and today 45% of those cars have either been turned back in, repo'ed, sold at auction or are in default. All good things, which are not reality based do come to an end. Many knew there was going to be a problem as the sales winded down and we were being strung out on our payments from a few dealerships out there.

Triple zero was not a win / win for the consumer, their credit or the company. Many of those vehicles were bought by first time buyers who never even made the first payment which started many months later, yet had put over 15,000 miles on those cars and reduced its value by over 65%, ouch, that is a nightmare from a banker perspective. No wonder Corporate America wanted bankruptcy reform, even though such a reckless lending of credit was a completely foolish business move.

American consumers today are upside down in their high priced SUVs, they owe more than they are worth and those who bought gas-guzzlers in 2002 are still paying on vehicles, which are not running very well today. Most had paid sticker price or near to get the zero-zero and still others got a rebate, which was used for a down payment to make the deal. I met a gentleman who filled up his beautiful Suburban the other day. His total came to $ 97.00 and he was pretty depressed, I actually thought he was going to cry. We got to talking about his beautiful Venti sized SUV and he told me it cost $ 48,000 and had all the bells and whistles. I was impressed and asked him what he did for a living. He works for the local city and said he was able to afford it due to the zero zero program and he wanted to sell it now due to fuel costs as he is divorced and now single. He is thinking something more economical might be a better plan? Perhaps a hybrid? I guess I understand what he is saying. He explained he could not sell the vehicle because he still owes $ 39,440 on it and it is only worth $ 18,000 now. What a nice guy with a disaster of a brain for a financial planner, but alas he is not so much worse off than you, is he. Sixteen point nine million

Americans bought new automobiles on the zero zero plan. Perhaps they did not plan on this; the $ 3.00 per gallon gas prices. Are you one of them? How does that make you feel? Think about it.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Importance Of Medicine In Our Daily Lives

Medicine is considered as one of the most important necessity to all of us. It is derived from the Latin words ars medicina meaning "the art of healing". It is a branch of the health sciences and is the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease, injury and other damage to a body or mind.

It is both an area of ​​knowledge, a science of body system and their diseases and treatment. This branch of science encompasses treatment by drugs, diet, exercise and other nonsurgical means. It is also used to maintain our health. An agent such as drug is used to treat disease or injury. There are different types of medicine, we have herbal medicine, which came from different types of plants, medicines treat in hospital and etc. Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to use of any plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Long practiced outside of conventional medicine, herbalism is becoming more mainstreams as up-to-date analysis and research show their value in the treatment and prevention of disease. Some of us believe in herbal medicines, for it is pure came from plants and no other ingredients. Herbal medicine also uses for cough, fever, toothache and some other diseases that might catch from our environment. Herbalists treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, and an irritable bowel syndrome among others. Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. For most herbs, the specific ingredient that causes a therapeutic effect is not known. Whole herbs contain many ingredients and it is likely that they work together to produce the desired medicinal effect

Some medicines may cause problems if you take them with other medicines. This is why it is important to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you are taking. And some medicines can cause problems, even if you take them correctly. Call your doctor or pharmacist if you think your medicine is making you feel worse. We take medicine to make us feel better when we are sick.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

What is Hospitality Interior Design and Who Uses It?

In the hospitality industry, interior design performs a similar function. The layout of a lobby or guest room in addition to the color scheme, lighting, and furniture choices, greatly affects how a guest feels and how they view their surroundings.

Hospitality interior design covers a variety of different venues. It is used in restaurants, hotels, even retail stores. Every design aspect from the floor plan to the color of the walls and the style of furniture makes a difference in affecting a certain tone or atmosphere. Depending on the tone a business wishes to set, an interior designer might choose a bright, vibrant color pattern paired with modern furniture and innovative decorative accents or he might select a subtle, more muted color palette paired with plush furniture and simple wall decorations to inspire feelings of calm and comfort.

Lighting and color palette go hand in hand when it comes to hospitality interior design. Most interior designers have been educated to know what types of lighting to pair with bright color schemes versus those which are more subtle. The lighting of a venue may also be affected by furniture choices and the actual architecture of a building. Rooms with vaulted ceilings might require wall fixtures which direct the light upwards while smaller rooms might utilize overhead lighting or corner lamps. Not only does the type and placement of lighting affect the atmosphere of a room or building, but the degree of illumination is also important. A soft glow is more relaxing while bright or colored lighting inspires feelings of excitement and energy.

In addition to lighting and color palette, several more factors come into play within the realm of hospitality interior design. The type of furniture selected dictates whether a room is meant to be more decorative or functional and the arrangement of said furniture plays a role in establishing atmosphere as well. An open floor plan into which the furniture is sparsely placed induces an airy, free atmosphere while small groupsings of furniture might incite feelings of intimacy. When considering different styles of hospitality interior design there are myriad factors to think about but the most important decision to make is what kind of atmosphere should be affected. A good interior designer will be able to make all aspects of hospitality interior design work together in order to create a cohesive feel the subscribes to a certain tone or atmosphere.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Electromagnetic Charges in Food!

"Taking in foods that take away more energy than they provide will lower Your bodies ability to deal with the natural processes of Digestion, assimilation and elimination."

Our bodies operate on a subtle electromagnetic current. Nerve signals are in fact electrical charges-your brain, heart, and all organs emit and create a Field of electrical current.

Your body's cells communicate with each other with pulses of Electricity. When we eat food our body breaks down the food particles into there Smallest size (COLLOIDS). A colloid is the smallest possible form of nutrient particle (generally – The size ranges from .01 to .00001 of a micron in diameter).

Then these nutrient particles are then carried to our cells through an Electrical charge. When you are choosing something to eat for high Energy, remember foods like fast foods, processed foods have low energy Frequencies, we are not providing the body with the electrical energy it Needs. By doing this we are requiring our body to exhaust electrical nerve Energy To run the digestive system to break down the food in your body.

This Basically means that the food that we are eating actually is taking more Energy than it is giving.

(The energy and foods we consume is measured In Megahertz, MHz)

Megahertz is a technical name for the electrical frequency charge Around Food. The foods we eat must be living and energetically – alive foods that Carry the proper nutrients to our cells and our body. If not we will become tired and sick.

Your probably asking yourself what percentage of energy (MHz) do I need in my food to become and stay healthy.

The megahertz charge range from 0 to 250 plus of MHz. Here are some Examples of the foods that we eat and the energy they provide.

Canned foods are the worst with 0 MHz, chocolate cake 1-3 MHz, Kentucky Fried chicken-3, Big Mac-5, vitamin / mineral supp 10 to 30, raw almonds 40 To 50, fruits-60 to 70, green vegetables 70 to 90. So if you want your body to be full of vibrancy and high electromagnetic energy, (which will result in your body being able to properly Function, not to mention helping our bodies aging process as well) which foods will you try to eat ?

Eat live and water enriched foods instead of processed foods. If anyone is interested in learning more about your bodies own Electromagnetic energy there is a good book called "Sick And Tired", The Author's Name is Dr. Robert Young. I met him in Hawaii When I was at a Tony Robbins seminar.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Credit Balance in Medical Billing

As the name implies, a Credit Balance occurs when excess money is collected compared to the Charges for a service rendered by the Provider. This could be due to many reasons and has to be fixed while the final steps of medical claims processing are done. The Credit Balance could be due to an excess patient payment in the form of Co-insurance or Deductible; or it could be due to over-payments from the Insurance Payers. Let us analyze some scenarios and why it is important to be handled promptly:

Patient Credit Balance:

Patients might have paid an amount up front based on the assumption of what their Payers would cover. Once the medical claims processing is completed and the Payer pays in full, then the Patient's payment is in excess. The physician billing solution can also call the patient and give the option of adjusting this excess against future visits or sending a check. But in either scenario, the Patient's consent has to be obtained and is mandatory.

Payer Credit Balance:

Many a times the Credit Balance happens because of Over-payments by the Payers. Even the Patient's Credit Balance is usually because the Payer paid more than anticipated. In medical claims processing, it is very important to handle the payments from Payers on priority. This not only projects the correct Cash flow as a result of the physician billing solution, but also prevents inflated AR. Some scenarios on Payer Credit Balances:

1) Both Primary and Secondary Payer pay as Primary
2) Payer pays more than Allowed amount by error
3) Cross-over errors, especially between Medicare and Medicaid
4) Privately purchased Plans – always pay as Primary, though there could be another Primary

Rules:

In all these instances, there are very strict guidelines and time frames within which the excess money has to be returned either to the Payer or to the Patient, as the case may be. In case of Payer errors, the Payer has to be notified of the error within 30-120 days depending on the Payer. Failure to notify within the timeframe could be viewed as 'Fraud' by the Payer and the State with stiff penalties. If the Payers refuse the refund (as in the case of privately purchased Plans), then that money belongs to the Patient and the Patient has to be notified. The medical claims processing and physician billing solution providers have to keep these requirements in mind and process the Credit Balances on a daily / weekly basis to avoid any trouble for the Provider and the Practice.

Recoupments and Offsets:

Some payers would adjust the payments for current and future claims against Credit Balances owed to other Payers which are Recoupments. When the Payers adjust the payments for current and future claims against the over-payments made in the past in their own Plans, these are called Offsets.

The best option to handle the Credit Balances is to outsource medical billing to a professional medical claims processing company.

Log on to http://www.mgsionline.com/medical-claims-billing.html to know more about medical Claims billing and processing.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Exercise With Leg Lymphedema

Fitness Article: Exercise with Lymphedema of the Leg …

I am writing this article from two points of view, as an experienced fitness trainer / strength coach who has studied health issues for many years and as a patient who suffers with lymphedema of the leg daily. I have been able to maintain my lymphedema pretty well, but that is because I have done extensive reading on the subject, I listened to my doctors, and I have extensive knowledge of exercise. It is on my mind every day, at almost every moment because it takes great effort to maintain properly. I have included the description of lymphedema below.

Lymphedema is a difficult thing to deal with and must be maintained all day long, every day. There is no cure for lymphedema. I have had lymphedema in my leg since my 1991 cancer surgery. I went from being a gymnastics coach and fitness trainer who exercised daily to being bedridden after my surgery as a result of the lymph nodes being removed along with the cancer. My life changed drastically, but I went back to work and learned how to maintain it as soon as possible. Several doctors told me that I would be bedridden for the rest of my life and that I would never work again. That was in 1991.

So, what is lymphedema? Here is the definition by the National Lymphedema Network …

"Lymphedema is an accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the interstitial tissue that causes swelling, most often in the arm (s) and / or leg (s), and sometimes in other parts of the body. Lymphedema can develop when lymphatic vessels are missing or impaired (primary), or when lymph vessels are damaged or lymph nodes removed (secondary).

When the impairment becomes so great that the lymphatic fluid exceeds the lymphatic transport capacity, an abnormal amount of protein-rich fluid collects in the tissues of the affected area. Left untreated, this stagnant, protein-rich fluid not only causes tissue channels to increase in size and number, but also reduces oxygen availability in the transport system, interferes with wound healing, and provides a culture medium for bacteria that can result in lymphangitis ( infection). "

So, what types of exercise can a lymphedema patient perform? That depends on the patient and whether they have medical clearance to exercise. Once cleared for exercise, the best exercise to reduce the leg swelling is swimming because the person is horizontal, in motion, and performing a non-impact movement. The second best exercise for a person with leg lymphedema is riding a recumbent bike. It is also non-impact, it's a steady motion, and the legs are elevated slightly.

If the patient is in good physical condition otherwise and they have the lymphedema under control (as much as possible) they can use the elliptical machine. That is, if they can tolerate it from a fitness and medical standpoint. Make sure the lymphedema patient has permission from their doctor to perform exercise, especially an intense exercise such as the elliptical. Keep the person with lymphedema OFF THE TREADMILL. Walking and running cause the leg swelling to become MUCH worse because they are high impact. Picture someone putting ice cream into an ice cream cone and then packing it in. The swelling becomes dense, packed in if not maintained properly. The more severe, the more difficult it is to deal with.

In my experience, it can take an hour with the leg elevated before the swelling even BEGINS to go down and several days or weeks for it to completely drain. People with lymphedema should be wearing their compression stocking if their doctor prescribed it and sleeping with her legs elevated every night, unless their doctor has told them otherwise. It is important to stay in motion and to only perform non-impact exercises. For example, squats are often better than walking lunges for someone with lymphedema. The walking lunge is an impact exercise. Do NOT encourage a person with leg lymphedema to participate any exercise classes that include impact exercises. If they are in good shape the spin classes will keep the circulation going and help will lose or maintain a healthy body weight. It's all about keeping the body in motion without ANY impact exercises.

Keep in mind that of the lymphedema is from a new surgery the patient MUST be cleared to begin exercise because if they begin to exercise before the doctors allow them to exercise they will cause problems with the lymphatic system. My doctors told me the swelling from the surgery would never go down if I started to exercise too soon and that I would cause permanent damage. I was told to wait one full year after my surgery before I was allowed to exercise my legs. I waited 10 months and couldn't stand it any longer. I HAD to return to exercise because it was what I enjoyed and it was my life. Not being allowed to exercise my legs was extremely difficult for me because I spent a lifetime in the gym. Again, make sure the lymphedema patient has FULL medical clearance to exercise.

Here is something that many people do not know. When a person with lymphedema is not in motion and does not have compression stocking on their leg, they must keep their legs elevated in order to prevent swelling. Something as simple as waiting in line at the grocery store could cause enough swelling to keep a person in bed the next day. The swelling begins in less than a minute, literally, when standing still or sitting without the leg elevated. It is truly a challenge every minute of the day to keep the leg from swelling and those around lymphedema patients must be patient and considerate.

There is plenty of information on lymphedema. It is either primary or secondary. Secondary lymphedema would be caused from something such as a cancer surgery. Mine is secondary because my lymph nodes were removed from my upper thigh on one leg during my cancer surgery. If the lymphedema is not controlled it can end up being elephantitis. Yes, it is a real medical condition and it is very serious. There are lymphedema support groups throughout the USA. The National Lymphedema Network has plenty of information.

Let me know how I can help you …
Karen Goeller, CSCS

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Roles of the Child Study Team and the IEP Process

Many teachers and administrators are unclear as to the roles of the Child Study Team and the IEP process. As the state and the country move more and more forward with inclusion, student growth objectives and other data driven initiatives for all students, it is critical that all pertinent personnel understand the special education process.

In order to understand the special education process one first must gain clarity with regard to the roles and responsibilities of the Child Study Team itself. According to NJ Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter 14 (12/2010) the Child Study Team consists of 3 primary members. The primary members include the social worker, school psychologist and the learning disabilities teacher consultant. (p. 43) Secondary members may include the related service providers, the speech-language therapist, occupational therapist and the physical therapist. Each member has its own role and responsibility. In addition, the social worker, school psychologist and learning disability teacher consultant may also be case managers.

The function of the school social worker is to complete the social history and possibly adaptive functioning assessment, during an evaluation or re-evaluation. This includes a review of student records, parent interview and developmental history. In some districts, the social worker may also counsel students. The social worker on the child study team is usually a case manager and will coordinate services, create and manage the IEP. One important note is that it is not required for the social worker to have any classroom experience. Most often social workers have no classroom or educational experience.

The role of the school psychologist includes case management, cognitive assessment or intellectual functioning, administration of data collection for executive functioning and attention and adaptive functioning assessments. These measures commonly include the Wechsler Intelligence test (WISC), The Woodcock Johnson cognitive assessment, The Behavior Assessment System for Children (adaptive skills), and the Conner's Scale (attention). The school psychologist is also not required to have any classroom experience and most frequently does not.

The learning disabilities teacher consultant functions as a case manager and conducts the academic achievement testing. This testing identifies strengths, needs, learning styles and where the student academically performs compared to the same age or the same grade students. Some of these assessments include the Woodcock – Johnson academic battery, The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Gray oral reading, Key Math and the Brigance amongst many others. The Learning Disabilities Teacher Consultant also develops instructional strategies, goals and objectives. The important distinction with the role and responsibility of the LDT-C is that they must have at least 5 years of classroom experience. The LDT-C is the only member of the Child Study Team who must have classroom experience -usually the only who does have classroom / academic experience.

The three primary child study team members are also case managers. Each student who is classified for special education and related services has a case manager. According to NJ Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter 14 (12/2010) the case manager must:

1. Be knowledgeable about the student's educational needs and their educational program;

2. Be knowledgeable about special education procedures and procedural safeguards;

3. Have an apportioned amount of time for case management responsibilities; and

4. Be responsible for transition planning. (p.44)

Additionally, they coordinate the development of the IEP, monitor and evaluate its effectiveness, facilitate communication between school and home and coordinate the annual review and re-evaluation.

The special education process begins with a referral to the Child Study Team. A referral may come directly from the parents or other personnel. In order for a parent to refer a child for evaluation a letter must be written to the administration with the request. A teacher, administrator of state agency may also refer a student to the child study team. Most often the teacher first brings the student to the Intervention & Referral Services team so strategies may be devised and implemented within the general education setting. According to the Special Education Process Companion, "The staff of the general education program shall maintain written documentation, including data setting forth the type of interventions utilized, the frequency and duration of each intervention, and the effectiveness of each intervention." (p. 2) Once the Intervention & Referral Services team determines that an evaluation may be needed, a referral would be made. It must be noted that many parents confuse the Intervention & Referral Services meeting with a Child Study Team meeting. It is important to clearly define these meetings to the parents.

Once the referral is received, regardless of who makes the referral, a meeting must be held to determine whether an evaluation is needed. This meeting must be held within 20 calendar days of receipt of the referral (excluding holidays but not summer vacation). The participants of this meeting include the child study team, the speech and language therapist if indicated, the general education teacher and the parents. During this meeting the student's progress, interventions and needs are discussed. The team then determines whether an evaluation is needed and the scope of the evaluation. Should an evaluation not be warranted the code states that:

Within 15 calendar days of the meeting, the parent is provided with:

Written notice of the determination that the evaluation is not warranted and:

A copy of the short procedural safeguards statement; and

Copies of the special education rules (NJAC 6A: 14)

and the due process hearing rules (NJAC 1: 6A)

In addition, should the parent disagree with the determination not to evaluate they have the right to a due process hearing to dispute the determination. However, common practice is such that it is not prudent to spend the time and money to go to due process, and the student would tend to be evaluated as requested by the parent. If it has been been determined that an evaluation is warranted the procedure continues.

One element which it is critical to follow is obtaining signed consent by the parent when needed. Once it has been been determined that an evaluation is needed and the elements of the evaluation delineated, signed parental consent must be obtained. This is the first of many times throughout the special education process that consent must be obtained. According to the administrative code 6A: 14 -2.3, "Consent shall be obtained prior to implementation of the initial IEP, prior to conducting a reevaluation, prior to the release of student records, each time a board of education seeks to access private insurance, whenever a child study team member is excused from a meeting, whenever an IEP is amended and whenever a waiver for reevaluation is obtained. " (p.13)

The next step in the process is the evaluation. According to the Administrative Code, "students must be administered a multidisciplinary evaluation consisting of at least 2 evaluations from child study team members and be evaluated in any area of ​​suspected disability." (p.50) In addition it must be, "sufficiently comprehensive to identify all of the child's special education and related service needs, whether or not commonly linked to the suspected eligibility category." (p.24)

At this point the Child Study Team has 90 days to evaluate, determine eligibility and create the program if needed. However, should a parent fail to produce a child numerous times this timeline does not need to be followed. During the evaluation period it is customary that the student is given some type of cognitive evaluation which determines cognitive strengths, weaknesses and overall potential. Usually a full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) is determined. An academic achievement evaluation is conducted as well. This determines the level of learning achieved by the student based on comparison to the same age or grade peers and achievement strengths and weaknesses. Most districts also conduct a social history, which is conducted by parent questionnaire or interview. The social history gives valuable information regarding prenatal and birth history, milestones and emotional / social issues or concerns. Once the evaluations are completed they are sent to the parents at least 10 days in advance of the eligibility meeting.

According to the NJ Administrative Code, "Any eligibility meeting for students classified shall include the following participants:

1. The parent;

2. A teacher who is knowledgeable about the student's educational performance:

3. The student, where appropriate:

4. At least one child study team member who participated in the evaluation:

5. The case manager:

6. Other appropriate individuals at the discretion of the parent or school district:

7. For an initial eligibility meeting, certified school personnel referring the student for services or the principal. "(P. 17)

This team is known as the IEP team. It is called upon to convene many times throughout the special education process.

In New Jersey a student may be found eligible for special education and related services in different ways depending upon the disability category. The most common category is specific learning disability, "which is comprised of;

1. Oral expression;

2. Listening comprehension;

3. Written expression;

4. Basic reading skills;

5. Reading fluency;

6. Reading comprehension;

7. Mathematics calculation;

8. Mathematics problem solving. "(P.53)

The two methods used to determine eligibility for this category include the discrepancy method and response to intervention. When using the discrepancy method, "a severe discrepancy between ability and achievement that is not correctable without special education and related services" is needed. (p.52) Common practice dictates that a "severe discrepancy" is present if there is a 1.5 or 1 standard deviation between the two areas. This translates to a 15-22 point discrepancy when using standard scores. The second method that may be used is response to intervention. According to the Administrative code 6A: 14.-3.4, 6

"When a response to scientifically based intervention methodology is utilized to make the determination of whether the student has a specific learning disability, the district board of education shall:

i. Ensure that such methodology includes scientifically based instruction by highly qualified instructors, and that multiple assessments of students progress are included in the evaluation of the student;

ii. Not be required to include more than one assessment conducted pursuant to the district's response to scientifically based intervention methodology in the evaluation of the student; and

iii. If the parent consents in writing extend as necessary, the time to complete an evaluation. "(P. 53)

"Other disability categories include:

1. Auditorily impaired, which means an inability to hear within normal limits due to physical impairment or dysfunction. An audiological evaluation and a speech and language evaluation are required.

2. Autistic which means a pervasive developmental disability which significantly impacts verbal, nonverbal and social interaction that adversely affects a student's educational performance. An assessment by a speech and language therapist and a physician trained in Neuro-develomental assessment are required.

3. Cognitively impaired which means a disability that is characterized by significantly below average general cognitive functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior. This category is broken into three areas including mild, moderate and severe.

4. Communication impaired which means a language disorder in the areas of morphology, syntax, semantics, and / or pragmatics which adversely affects a student's educational performance. The problem shall be demonstrated through functional assessment of language in other than a testing situation and performance below 1.5 standards deviations, or the 10th percentile on at least two standardized language tests, where such tests are appropriate one of which shall be a comprehensive test of both receptive and expressive language.

5. Emotionally disturbed which means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects and student's educational performance due to:

i. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors;

ii. An inability to maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;

iii. In appropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances;

iv. A general pervasive mood or unhappiness or depression; or

v. A tendency to develop physical symptoms of fears associated with personal or school problems.

6. Multiply disabled which means the presence of two or more disabling

conditions, the combination of which causes severe educational needs.

7.Deaf / Blindness which means concomitant hearing and visual impairments.

8 Orthopedically impaired which means a disability characterized by a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance. A medical assessment documenting the orthopedic condition is required.

9 Other Health Impaired which means a disability characterized by having limited strength, vitality or alertness, included heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, due to chronic or acute health problems, such as attention deficit disorder, heart condition or tuberculosis. A medical assessment documenting the health problem is required.

10 Preschool child with a disability means a child between the ages of 3 and 5 experiencing developmental delay as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more areas and requires special education and related services.

11 Social maladjustment means a consistent inability to conform to the standards of behavior established by the school.

12 Specific learning disabled as described above.

13 Traumatic brain injury which means an acquired injury to the brain caused by external force or insult to the brain resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment.

14 Visual impairment means impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects the student's educational performance. An assessment by a specialist qualified to determine visual disability is required. Students with visual impairments shall be reported to the Commission for the Blind and Visually impaired. (p. 54-60)

Once eligibility has been determined and the parent has signed consent an Individualized Education Program may be written. The case manager comes to the meeting with a draft document and the specifics are discussed and created with the IEP team. The parent may sign consent at this point or wait up to 15 days to sign consent or disagree with the IEP. Signed consent is needed to implement the first IEP after eligibility is determined.

Once the IEP is created and consent is obtained the program may begin. The modifications, accommodations, program, goals and objectives must be adhered to by all personnel who interact with the student. The IEP is a legal binding document. However, it may be amended as needed.

Other points within the special education process include the annual review and triennial reevaluation. It is mandated that each IEP is reviewed annual. Progress is determined and changes are made as needed. Additionally, every three years a student is reevaluated to determine continued elgibility. If eligibility is clear or no further information is needed then the reevaluation may be waived.

In summary, the special education process in New Jersey is a very specific process as mandated by legal code. The entire process is spelled out in the New Jersey Administrative Code Title 6A, Chapter 14. All districts must be in compliance with this code. Non-public schools have specific requirements to follow as well. Timelines, signed consent, the specific elements found within the IEP and program adherence are critical features of the special education process. Failure to follow these provisions will render a district, "out of compliance," which comes with sanctions by the department of education.

Works Cited

New Jersey Department of Education. New Jersey Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter

14 . NP: New Jersey Department of Education, 2010. Print.

New Jersey Office of Special Education. Special Education Process: From Child-Find, Referral, Evaluation, and Eligibility to IEP Development, Annual Review and Reevaluation . NP: New Jersey Office of Special Education, 2007. Print.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment